A Dictionary of Science, Fifth Edition, 5th Edition by John Daintith

By John Daintith

This best-selling dictionary comprises over 9,000 entries on all facets of technology and gives entire insurance of biology (including human biology), chemistry, physics, the earth sciences, and astronomy. Appendices conceal the periodic desk, geological time scale, and animal and plant class. New positive aspects comprise digital thumb tags for simple reference, improved parts together with astronomy and earth technological know-how and extra positive factors on key issues similar to the sun method and Genetically converted Organisms. additionally featured are brief biographies of major scientists and chronologies of particular matters, together with plastics, electronics and phone biology. either concise and wide-ranging, this dictionary is a perfect convenient reference paintings and nice creation for college kids and non-scientists alike.

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Drugs that promote such metabolic activity are described as anabolic (see anabolic steroid). See metabolism. Compare catabolism. anaerobe See anaerobic respiration. anaerobic respiration A type of *respiration in which foodstuffs (usually carbohydrates) are partially oxidized, with the release of chemical energy, in a process not involving atmospheric oxygen. Since the substrate is never completely oxidized the energy yield of this type of respiration is lower than that of *aerobic respiration.

52. The compound occurs naturally as the mineral gibbsite (monoclinic). In the laboratory it can be prepared by precipitation from solutions of aluminium salts. Such solutions contain the hexaquoaluminium(III) ion with six water molecules coordinated, [Al(H2O)6]3+. In neutral solution this ionizes: [Al(H2O)6]3+ ˆ H+ + [Al(H2O)5OH]2+ The presence of a weak base such as S2– or CO32– (by bubbling hydrogen sulphide or carbon dioxide through the solution) causes further ionization with precipitation of aluminium hydroxide [Al(H2O)6]3+(aq) → Al(H2O)3(OH)3(s) + 3H+(aq) The substance contains coordinated water molecules and is more correctly termed hydrated aluminium hydroxide.

Alveolus 1. The tiny air sac in the *lung of mammals and reptiles at the end of each *bronchiole. It is lined by a delicate moist membrane, has many blood capillaries, and is the site of exchange of respiratory gases (carbon dioxide and oxygen). 2. The socket in the jawbone in which a tooth is rooted by means of the *periodontal membrane. Alzheimer’s disease A neurological disease characterized by progressive loss of intellectual ability. The disease, which is named after German physician Alois Alzheimer (1864–1915), is associated with general shrinkage of the brain tissue – with deposits of β-amyloid peptide (a glycoprotein) and abnormal Ülaments of tau protein associated with *microtubules – and changes in the neurotransmitter systems within the brain that include a loss in the activity of *cholinergic neurons.

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