A Guide to Programming in Java, Edition: 2nd by Beth Brown

By Beth Brown

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It has an ❛❝❝♦✉♥t (an identifier that never changes) and a ❜❛❧❛♥❝❡ (that potentially does change). The public methods of such a structure are as follows: ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❝❧❛ss ❇❛♥❦❆❝❝♦✉♥t ④ ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❇❛♥❦❆❝❝♦✉♥t✭❙tr✐♥❣ ❛❝❝✱ ❞♦✉❜❧❡ ❜❛❧✮ ✴✴ ♣r❡✿ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t ✐s ❛ str✐♥❣ ✐❞❡♥t✐❢②✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❜❛♥❦ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t Automated teller: a robotic palm reader. ❇❛♥❦❆❝❝♦✉♥t 12 The Object-Oriented Method ✴✴ ❜❛❧❛♥❝❡ ✐s t❤❡ st❛rt✐♥❣ ❜❛❧❛♥❝❡ ✴✴ ♣♦st✿ ❝♦♥str✉❝ts ❛ ❜❛♥❦ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t ✇✐t❤ ❞❡s✐r❡❞ ❜❛❧❛♥❝❡ ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❜♦♦❧❡❛♥ ❡q✉❛❧s✭❖❜❥❡❝t ♦t❤❡r✮ ✴✴ ♣r❡✿ ♦t❤❡r ✐s ❛ ✈❛❧✐❞ ❜❛♥❦ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t ✴✴ ♣♦st✿ r❡t✉r♥s tr✉❡ ✐❢ t❤✐s ❜❛♥❦ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t ✐s t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❛s ♦t❤❡r ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❙tr✐♥❣ ❣❡t❆❝❝♦✉♥t✭✮ ✴✴ ♣♦st✿ r❡t✉r♥s t❤❡ ❜❛♥❦ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ t❤✐s ❛❝❝♦✉♥t ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❞♦✉❜❧❡ ❣❡t❇❛❧❛♥❝❡✭✮ ✴✴ ♣♦st✿ r❡t✉r♥s t❤❡ ❜❛❧❛♥❝❡ ♦❢ t❤✐s ❜❛♥❦ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ✈♦✐❞ ❞❡♣♦s✐t✭❞♦✉❜❧❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t✮ ✴✴ ♣♦st✿ ❞❡♣♦s✐t ♠♦♥❡② ✐♥ t❤❡ ❜❛♥❦ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t ⑥ ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ✈♦✐❞ ✇✐t❤❞r❛✇✭❞♦✉❜❧❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t✮ ✴✴ ♣r❡✿ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ s✉❢❢✐❝✐❡♥t ❢✉♥❞s ✐♥ t❤❡ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t ✴✴ ♣♦st✿ ✇✐t❤❞r❛✇ ♠♦♥❡② ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ ❜❛♥❦ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t The substance of these methods has purposefully been removed because, again, it is unimportant for us to know exactly how a ❇❛♥❦❆❝❝♦✉♥t is implemented.

In the same way that fields are encapsulated by a class, classes may be encapsulated by a package. A package is a collection of related classes that implement some set of structures with a common theme. The classes of this text, for example, are members of the str✉❝t✉r❡ package. In the same way that there are users of classes, there are users of packages, and much of the analogy holds. In particular, classes may be declared ♣✉❜❧✐❝, in which case they may be used by anyone who imports the package into their program.

T ❣❡t❱❛❧✉❡✭✮ ✴✴ ♣♦st✿ r❡t✉r♥s ✈❛❧✉❡ ❢r♦♠ ❛ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ④ r❡t✉r♥ t❤❡❱❛❧✉❡❀ ⑥ ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❖❜❥❡❝t ❣❡t❑❡②✭✮ ✴✴ ♣♦st✿ r❡t✉r♥s ❦❡② ❢r♦♠ ❛ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥ ④ r❡t✉r♥ t❤❡❑❡②❀ ⑥ When necessary, the method s❡t❱❛❧✉❡ can be used to change the value associated with the key. Thus, the s❡t❱❛❧✉❡ method simply takes its parameter and assigns it to the ✈❛❧✉❡ field: ♣✉❜❧✐❝ ❖❜❥❡❝t s❡t❱❛❧✉❡✭❖❜❥❡❝t ✈❛❧✉❡✮ ✴✴ ♣♦st✿ s❡ts ❛ss♦❝✐❛t✐♦♥✬s ✈❛❧✉❡ t♦ ✈❛❧✉❡ ④ ❖❜❥❡❝t ♦❧❞❱❛❧✉❡ ❂ t❤❡❱❛❧✉❡❀ t❤❡❱❛❧✉❡ ❂ ✈❛❧✉❡❀ r❡t✉r♥ ♦❧❞❱❛❧✉❡❀ ⑥ NW N S Principle 2 Free the future: reuse code.

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