Advances in Environmental Research Volume 13. by Justin A. Daniels

By Justin A. Daniels

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2007). Yersinia (family Enterobacteriaceae) are faculatative anerboic bacteria, of which Y. enterocolitica are foodborne pathogens which are mostly associated with human disease. Y. g. g. , 2007). Y. pseudotuberculosis (food-borne route) and Y. pestis (flea-borne zoonotic disease) can also cause disease in humans. Rodents are the major reservoirs of Y. enterocolitica; and while humans are the primary hosts other mammals may also be infected. Infection may occur either through blood (in the case of Y.

2006). Once successfully 32 William J. Snelling, Catherine D. Carrillo, Colm J. Lowery et al. introduced in developed countries, then and only then, can this template be effectively applied to the developing world. If successful the substantial economic cost (clinical costs and lost working hours) of water borne pathogens might, in time, be reimbursed through improved epidemiological data collection which, with proactive intervention, will dramatically reduce the health and economic burden of waterborne disease.

Improved detection methods, with the ability to differentiate species, can be useful in the assessment of infection and identification of contamination sources. , 2006a). The roles of humans, livestock and wildlife in the transmission of microbial pathogens remain largely unclear for many different areas. , 2006a). , 2006a). To successfully reduce the carriage of foodborne pathogens, it is likely that a combination of intervention strategies will be required (Doyle and Erickson, 2006). Collaborative efforts are needed to decrease environmental contamination and improve the safety of produce.

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