By Sandra L. Singer
In the interval among the Civil struggle and global struggle I, German universities supplied North American girls with possibilities in graduate education that weren't available to them at domestic. This education allowed ladies to compete to a better measure with males in more and more professionalized fields. In go back for such possibilities, those girls performed a key position in establishing up German universities to all ladies. Many committed the remainder of their lives to making higher learn and graduate possibilities for different ladies, perpetually altering the process larger schooling in North America.
This learn presents money owed of the outstanding limitations encountered by way of those first ladies scholars in Europe. It files their perseverance and hard-won triumphs and comprises besides the tales of the innovative males who mentored them and fought for his or her rights to raised schooling. by no means earlier than has documentation of such a lot of North American scholars at German-speaking universities been incorporated in a single quantity. This choice of tales from girls throughout disciplines makes it attainable to evaluate the actually outstanding nature in their mixed contributions to better schooling and examine in North the US and Europe.
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Extra info for Adventures Abroad: North American Women at German-Speaking Universities, 1868-1915 (Contributions in Women's Studies)
First, since many students studied at various universities, records of these students may be duplicated in statistics.
The first American women to travel to Europe to study medicine in the nineteenth century headed for Paris and the Ecole de Medecine, the medical college, or the Paris Maternite, the school for midwifery. The French universities were opened to women in 1863, a year before the first German-speaking university, the University of Zurich, was opened to women. As Zurich and then Bern allowed women to enroll and earn a medical degree, many American women went to Switzerland instead. Women were also drawn to Vienna and Berlin, as both cities had become major centers of medical research in the late nineteenth cen- Women in Medicine 31 tury.
Both men and women with degrees or training at such universities had helped to promote research and graduate training. But a 1907 article in The Nation quoted a German professor who was concerned that German universities had made it so easy for foreigners to earn doctoral degrees that the German doctor of philosophy was no longer respected. 130 Shortly before World War I, when criticism of degrees from German-speaking universities could also be explained in part by nationalist prejudice or fear of competition from the many women who had earned such degrees, training at Germanspeaking universities was again being discredited.