Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives by Norman G. Bisset (auth.), S. William Pelletier (eds.)

By Norman G. Bisset (auth.), S. William Pelletier (eds.)

Volume eight of this sequence offers 4 well timed studies on alkaloids: bankruptcy 1 is a powerful and enormous evaluation of curare, "a crew of dart and/or arrow poisons various in composition and that includes muscle rest as their simple pharmacological action." The attention-grabbing historical past of curare is stated, starting with early encounters through the Spanish Conquistadores via its use as arrow poisons via the woodland tribes in searching and battle, its chemistry, ethnography, botany and pharmacology. A terminal component of this bankruptcy treats the advance of recent muscle relaxants. This bankruptcy therefore strains how curare-initially just a crude plant extract-has given upward thrust to the generally used and intensely vital neuromuscular blocking off brokers of this day. the fitting position of plant secondary metabolites and their interactions with insect herbivores were focal issues for learn through chemists, botanists and entomologists for a few years. Alkaloids and their glycosides are often concerned as feeding deterrents. bankruptcy 2 treats the relationships among the chemistry of alkaloids in host vegetation and the results that those compounds can have on insect herbivores. apparently, an alkaloid produced through a plant could show up diverse results on diversified insects.

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D The documenting collection has also been included with C. toxieofera [34, 46, 58, 61]. e Von Reis and Lipp [146] list a collection Krukoff 7572 with the annotation "used in curare". It is not mentioned in Krukolf and Smith [102]. f Collections have also been cited under the names Sciadotenia duckei Moldenke and Abuta selloana Eichler [34, 46]. Barneby and Krukolf [141] point out that this latter taxon could also be considered a geographical subspecies of A. imene. , The same documenting collections have also been assigned to A.

1-2 10 1200+ Petiveria Lepianthes (Pothomorphe) ·Piper Phytolaccaceae Piperaceae Simaroubaceae Sapotaceae Rutaceae Proteaceae Rubiaceae 60 50 3 Picrolemma 8 200 Erythrochiton ·Zanthoxylum (Fagara) Pouteria *Psycho tria *Guettarda 50 800-1400 20 60 Nauc/eopsis Virola Myristicaceae Meliaceae Moraceae Roupala 200 45 6 65 100 40 800 *Ocotea Gustavia Grias Mascagnia Tetrapterys Guarea Ficus Lauraceae Lecythidaceae Malpighiaceae Approx. no. 9 Triterpenoid saponins present in the family Chemistry unknown Saponins may be present in the genus Chemistry unknown Triterpenes and bitter substances occur in the family Primarily latex-containing plants; some species contain alkaloids Genus contains latex and cardiac glycosides Resin a well-recognized hallucinogenic material; tryptamine derivatives present; see also footnote 3 Saponins common in the family; sulphur-containing substances also present Unusual in that the plant is said to be used on its own or mixed to make arrow poison; no curarizing constituents known in the family Pungent-tasting amide derivatives and essential oils present Chemistry unknown Chemistry poorly known; some species have alkaloids Some species contain monoterpenoid indole alkaloids Chemistry not studied Alkaloids and coumarins common in the family and in the genus Resin and latex common in the family; saponins and alkaloids may be present in the genus Bitter alkaloids may be present Notes 66 11,37 102 34,46,100 43 34,46,100 152,179 11,37, 102, 177 34,37,46 11,37,102 34,46 34,66 175 34,61,163 34,61 34,46,176 34,46 66,171 11,46,100 References N (1) '"...

6. Classification Boehm (188, 189), in his now classical researches on curares carried out towards the end of the last century, was led to classify them according to the type of container they were stored in-the three most important types being calabash, tube, and pot curare. But he emphasized that chemical examination was an even better way of distinguishing the various products. Nevertheless, the classification by container proved convenient in use over a period of more than 60 years, as it turned out that, generally speaking, curare in calabashes has mostly been prepared from Loganiaceae; curares in bamboo tubes have usually been derived from Menispermaceae; and pot curares have mostly been mixed Loganiaceae/Menispermaceae products.

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