Ancient Science and Modern Civilization by George Sarton

By George Sarton

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Lost. 27 In the meanwhile, the Hebrew tradition was begun by Judah ben Solomon ha-Kohen (XIII-1) and continued by Moses ibn Tibbon (XIII-2), Jacob ben Mahir ibn Tibbon The Syriac tradition (XIII-2), and Levi ben Gerson (XIV-1) . was illustrated by Abu-1-Faraj, called Barhebraeus (XIII-2), who lectured on Euclid at the observatory of Maragha in 1268; unfortunately, the beginning of the Syriac tradition was also the end of it, because Abu-1-Faraj was the last Syriac writer of importance; after his death, Syriac was gradually replaced by Arabic.

The first to build a new geometry on an opposite postulate was a Russian, Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevskii (1793-1850), who assumed that through a given point more than one parallel can be drawn to a given straight line or that the sum of the angles than two right angles. The discovery of a non-Euclidean geometry was made at about the same time of a triangle is less by a Transylvanian, Janos Bolyai (1802-60). Sometime later, another geometry was outlined by a German, Bernhard Riemann (1826-66), who was not acquainted with the writings and B61yai and made radically new assumptions.

One cannot consider Ptolemy without evoking 40 PTOLEMY AND his predecessor, TIME HIS Hipparchos of Nicaia, who flourished in the Hellenistic Age, 3 almost three centuries before him. It is strange to think of two men separated by so large a barrierthree centuriesyet working as if the second were the im- mediate disciple of the first. Hipparchos' works are lost, was partly the result of the loss and is it possible that their book In some in- fact that Ptolemy's great superseded them and made them superfluous.

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