By Barbara A. Ambrose, Michael D. Purugganan
The Evolution of Plant Form, an exhilarating quantity in Wiley-Blackwell's Annual plant reports, techniques the topic from a variety of clinical views, bringing jointly reviews of genomics, palaeobotany, developmental genetics and ecological genetics. Written via some of the World's most generally known and revered researchers and drawn jointly and edited via Professors Barbara Ambrose and Michael Purugganan, this interesting quantity is a necessary buy for plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, geneticists, taxonomists, ecologists and inhabitants biologists. For libraries in universities and examine institutions the place organic sciences are studied and taught.
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Extra info for Annual Plant Reviews, The Evolution of Plant Form (Volume 45)
2000; Graham & Olmstead 2000; Zanis et al. 2002; Jansen et al. 2007; Moore et al. 2007). The so-called ANITA lines, namely, the New Caledonian endemic Amborella, Nymphaeales (water lilies), and Austrobaileyales, form a grade at the base. The remaining groups, called mesangiosperms, form ﬁve major clades: Chloranthaceae (notable for their highly simpliﬁed ﬂowers), the reduced aquatic genus Ceratophyllum, magnoliids, monocots, and eudicots (united by tricolpate pollen). Rootings on Ceratophyllum (based on rbcL: Chase et al.
1983; Phillips & Galtier 2005). Banks et al. (1975) reported aligned metaxylem in larger stems of Psilophyton. Expanding on a suggestion of Kenrick and Crane (1997), this might mean that a ﬁrst step toward secondary growth, namely, periclinal divisions of tracheid initials, occurred on the stem lineage of euphyllophytes. This is of minor consequence for living monilophytes, since even if their ancestors had secondary growth it must have been subsequently lost. In the main fern clade, Filicales, the most conspicuous innovation is the leptosporangium (hence their name “leptosporangiate ferns”).
Most multigene analyses (reviewed in Mathews 2009) have either nested Gnetales within conifers, with Pinaceae (the “gnepine” hypothesis: Qiu et al. 1999, 2007; Bowe et al. 2000; Chaw et al. 2000; Hajibabaei et al. , Rai et al. 2008). The latter result is implausible from a geological point of view, since Gnetales and angiosperms were the last major groups to appear in the fossil record. There is evidence that trees with Gnetales basal are a result of long branch attraction, where homoplastic changes on lines with large amounts of molecular evolution lead to incorrect inferences on relationships.